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Mushroom Glossary Terms PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 15 December 2010 09:48
abruptly adnexed see adnexed
acanthophysis see hyphidium
aciculate slightly acid
acrid taste burning or peppery, in this program the description of 'acrid' is rendered as 'peppery'
acula (plural aculae) spine
aculeate of cystidia, tapered so that only the very basal portion is relatively swollen, the entire cystidium being shaped like a spine, therefore spine-shaped; of spore, means having narrow spines
acuminate gradually narrowed to a point
acute pointed, sharp; less than a right angle
acyanophilous not cyanophilous
adnate refers to gills that are broadly attached to the stem, the lower edge of the gill being attached at the line at which a straight gill edge would intersect the stem: if attached above this line it would be adnexed or notched, if attached below this line it would be decurrent; if ascending adnate gills attach at much less than a right angle, appearing to curve upward toward stem; if adnate horizontal, gills attach at about a right angle; if broadly adnate, attached to the stem along their entire height
adnexed refers to gills that are narrowly attached to the stem: the gill edge curves gradually upward along the inner half of the gill and is attached to the stem by a narrow upper portion of the gill; if abruptly adnexed, gill edge curves abruptly upwards to stem but makes contact with stem in straight line (does not curve as in sinuate attachment)
aeriferous appearing as if air is trapped
aeruginose verdigris-green, (malachite-green), the color of oxidized copper
agaric mushroom with gills
agaricologist a person who studies gilled mushrooms
agaricology the study of gilled mushrooms
agglutinated surface fibrils or scales drawn together in clumps
allantoid sausage-shaped, tubular and slightly curved with rounded ends
alliaceous smelling or tasting like onions or garlic
almond-shaped of spores, with top end broader than base (where hilar appendage located), thus like an almond in shape
alternate names other names for the same species, given in the description immediately following the primary name; these are earlier or later or illegitimate name for the species, representing all or part of the concept of the primary name: the primary name includes the alternate name, but the alternate name may not include the whole concept represented by the primary name
alutaceous light leather colored, usually interpreted as light tan or medium yellow brown
alveolate surface of cap or spore with broad pits
amanitoid like Amanita, with free or slightly adnexed gills, a volva, and a ring
amatoxin cyclic peptide found in Amanita and other genera that are very toxic
amorphous shapeless, formless
ampullaceous flask-shaped
ampulliform flask-shaped; of cystidia, with base and middle parts wide and top part like a beak but wider than in ventricose-rostrate cystidia
anastomosing forming a network, connecting by cross-veins
annular resembling a ring or referring to a ring, as in an annular zone on stem
annular zone a band of fibrils or gluten around stem, often becoming darkened by spores, normally derived from veil remnants, but too obscure to be a ring
annulate bearing an annulus
annulus ring or collar of tissue on stem formed by ruptured of the veil that initially joins the stem to the cap edge
anthesis point of development of fruiting body at which the fresh unexpanded cap is in "full flower", contains the features for identification, and is at the brink of spore release
apical pore same as germ pore, not to be confused with apiculus, which is the other end of the spore
apiculus nipple-like projection; nipple-like projection on spore which corresponds to the area that was attached to the basidium, sometimes used to refer to a projection on the other end of the spore, same as hilar appendage and not to be confused with apical pore (germ pore)
appendiculate margin of cap fringed with hanging fragments of the veil; (of cystidium) having an appendage; (of a spore) having one or more setulae
appressed flattened down
areolate surface cracked into plaques or blocks, like the cracking that occurs when mud dries in the sun
ascending refers to gills that curve upwards from the margin of the cap to the attachment at the stem, as in conic or unexpanded cap
Ascomycota Phylum that includes the largest group of fungi, those that produces their spores in sacs called asci, but does not include any gilled mushrooms
asperulate of spores, appearing roughened with tiny points; or roughened with small warts
attenuate gradually narrowed
azonate without zones, without concentric markings
baeocystin an indole alkaloid (4-phosphoryloxy-N-methyltryptamine), closely related to and often found with psilocybin, possibly hallucinogenic with comparable effect to psilocybin
bald no warts or hairs, or raised scales, fibers or patches, same as glabrous and as used here equivalent to naked
basal mycelium fungal cells at the base of the stem, ranging from a few fibrils to a velvet layer
basidiocarp fruiting body: the whole reproductive structure of a mushroom including cap, gills, and stem
basidiome fruiting body: the whole reproductive structure of a mushroom including cap, gills and stem
Basidiomycetes class that includes most gilled mushrooms as well as chanterelles, tooth fungi, boletes, polypores, puffballs, bird's nests, jelly fungi etc.
Basidomycota phylum that includes classes Basidiomycetes (includes most gilled mushrooms as well as chanterelles, tooth fungi, boletes, polypores, puffballs, bird's nests, jelly fungi etc.), Teliomycetes (rust fungi etc.), and Ustomycetes (smut fungi etc.)
basidiospore sexual spore, the usual spore produced on gills
bell-shaped in the shape of a bell (like the Liberty bell), with rounded top and flaring lower edges
bibulous of surface of cap, capable of absorbing moisture
bolete fleshy mushroom with pores (at the ends of tubes) on underside of cap
broad when used of gills, refers to the height (depth) of the gill, which may be narrow, moderately broad or broad
broadly adnate see adnate
broadly convex of cap, convex but mostly flattened apart from downcurved margin, same as plano-convex
brown rot carbonizing decay (cellulose-composing decay)
bulbose having a bulb or bulging area; of stem, with an enlarged base
button young fruiting body before it has opened up
byssoid of mycelium, the condition when fine filaments spread from the base of the stem or fruiting body over substratum
caespitose growing in close groups or close clusters or tufts (may be from a common base, but stems not joined together), see clustered, connate
calyptrate with a hood; of spores, the outer layer separating to form a partial envelope or bag around spores, often with blisters or loose areas, as in some Galerina
cap caplike part of fruiting body which supports the gills
carinate of spores, furnished with a keel, boat shaped
cartilaginous of stems: firm, tough and pliant (flexible), typically under 5mm in diameter at top of stem; having the consistency or appearance of cartilage; sometimes used even of fragile stems and implying brittle, not pliant
cellulose a component of wood and plant cell walls made of glucose units
cirrate rolled round (curled) or becoming so
class classification group above order but below phylum: suffix for the fungi is -mycetes
close of gill spacing, nearly touching but with visible space between, intermediate between crowded and distant, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant
club-shaped like a caveman's club; when used of stems, implies base is thicker and stem tapers upward; when used of cystidia, implies part that extends outward beyond the hymenium is thicker, same as clavate
clustered growing together, either very close or from a common base
concentric having rings or circular zones
conic shaped like a cone
conic-campanulate of cap, bell-shaped with conic umbo
conifer cone-bearing tree
convergent of gill hyphae, projecting inward and downward away from cap as seen in cross-section
convex regularly rounded, domed, like an inverted bowl
convex-depressed of cap, convex with depressed center
coprophilous growing on dung
crowded of gill spacing, very close, touching or with almost no space between, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant
cucullate like a top hat; like a cowl or hood
cuneate wedge-shaped
cupulate cup-shaped
cuspidate sharp, pointed
daedaloid with elongated and sinuous (curving) openings
deciduous referring to trees that seasonally shed their leaves; or referring to anything that falls off, such as granules that tend to fall off the cap
decorticated of dead wood without the bark
decumbent (of stem) with the lower end lying against the substratum
decurrent refers to gills that run down the stem: i.e. attachment at stem is wider than average height of gill
decurved referring to a cap margin or scales means curved downward
delignifying decay a lignin and cellulose decomposing rot, leaving the wood light colored and fibrous
deliquesce melt into liquid, usually referring to the gills and cap of Coprinus or of some species of Bolbitiaceae
depressed of cap, having the middle lower than the edge; of gills, sinuate; depressed adnate refers to an adnate gill with a portion of the gill lower than its outer edge
derm surface layer of cap cells if they are differentiated from the underlying tissue and arranged more or less perpendicular to cap surface: if the elements are a single row or roundish cells, this is a cellular derm; if cells are elongated and all reach the same level, this is a palisoderm; if cells are elongated and of different lengths, it is a trichoderm; the prefix ixo- can be added to indicate that elements are gelatinized
disc center of the cap
discoid dish-shaped
distant of gill spacing, meaning the gills are spaced far apart, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant
dry surface not sticky or slimy or hygrophanous, feeling as if there is no moisture on surface
eccentric off center; of stem attachment, attached away from center of cap but not at its edge
ectomycorrhiza system in which mycelium branches through soil and forms a covering around individual rootlets, growing between the outer rootlet cells, exchanging phosphorus for compounds that the plant produces by photosynthesis, formed in trees of the family Pinaceae and Fagaceae; Genera which are predominantly ectomycorrhizal include Amanita, Cortinarius, Gomphidius, Hebeloma, Hygrophorus, Inocybe, Laccaria, Lactarius, Leucocortinarius, Naucoria, Paxillus, Rozites, Russula, Tricholoma
ellipsoid like an oblong sphere, often referring to the three dimensional shape of a spore
elliptic like an oblong circle, often referring to the outline (as opposed to the three dimensional shape) of a spore, according to one set of criteria, ratio of length to width is 1.15-1.60
elongate of spores, same as oblong, at least according to one definition, but may refer to cylindric as well
emarginate of gills, with a notch near stem, Largent & Baroni equate it with abruptly adnexed, but Ainsworth's Dictionary of the Fungi appears to equate it to sinuate (notched at the proximal end at junction with stem), and Hansen illustrates it as a deeper notch of the sinuate type; also used to describe a particular kind of bulb on stem
endomycorrhiza system in which mycelium branches through soil and grows between and within root cells, exchanging phosphorus and other nutrients for compounds that the plant produces by photosynthesis, formed in 90% of seed plants and conifers, except conifers of the family Pinaceae; Some Armillaria species form endomycorrhiza with orchids
endosporium the innermost layer of the spore wall
equal of a stem, the same diameter throughout its length, cylindric; of gill, broad (high) to same extent throughout length or alike in length
eroded of the margins of cap or gills, developing irregular jagged edges as a result of deterioration, irregularly
even of cap margin, means not wavy or lobed: the bottom line of the margin as seen from the side is a single flat plane revolving around the stem; of gill edges, means not toothed, eroded, fringed etc; of surface of cap, stem or spores means without striations, elevations or depressions
expanded cap fully developed; cap spread out
fairy ring a circle or arc of mushrooms
family a classification group above genus and species, but below class and order, suffix is -aceae
fibrillose composed of delicate fibers which are long and evenly arranged on the surface
finely adnexed of gills, so narrowly attached that they give the appearance of being free
flat of cap, the margin being on the same level as the center, same as plane and applanate
flesh the tissue of cap or stem, not including the surface
floccose with easily removed cottony or woolly tufts; woolly or cottony; dry and loosely arranged; having the appearance of cotton flannel
foray a field trip
forked of gills, dividing into two or more branches as they goes away from stem
forking of gills, dividing into two or more branches as they goes away from stem
free refers to gills that are not attached to stem
friable crumbling easily
fruiting body the whole reproductive structure of a mushroom including cap, gills and stem
fungus (plural fungi) an organism that lacks chlorophyll, consists of filamentous tubular branching cells with nuclei, and reproduces by spores
funnel-shaped with a very deep depression, like that of a funnel
fusoid somewhat spindle-shaped
gasteromycete a basidiomycete that does not actively discharge its spores, formally constituting a class of basidiomycetes
genus (plural genera classification grouping below family but above genus: first letter is given in upper case
gill gill, the spore-bearing platelike structure extending underneath and from the center of the cap like a spoke of a wheel
greasy slippery or oily but not viscid (sticky) or slimy, same as lubricous
gregarious growing in close groups but not tufted or clustered
group a cluster of taxonomically related similar species typified by a particular species, as in Conocybe tenera group, sometimes used of a group of similar-looking species
guttulate of spores, containing an oil droplet
habit the general external and characteristic appearance of mushrooms, and manner in which they are found growing
habitat the natural place of growth
hairy covered by an arrangement of fibrils or mycelial strands resembling hairs
hallucinogen capable of producing disturbances in (usually visual) perception
hardwood any tree that is not a conifer
heterodiametric of spore sizes, the average length divided by the average width has a value greater than 1.28: with subisodiametric spores this value is 1.16-1.27, and with isodiametric spores it is 1.0-1.15
hollow of stem, having the flesh empty of fibrils, same as fistulose or tubular
homogeneous the same throughout
host plant or animal on or in which a parasitic fungus exists
humicolous living in humus
humus decaying organic material in or on soil
hymenium fertile area of fruiting body where spores are produced (in gilled mushrooms the surface of the gills), or the surface cell layer that produces the spores
hymenophore spore-bearing surface
hyphidium a little, or strongly, modified terminal hypha in the hymenium (spore-bearing surface), distinguished as follows by Donk: haplo- (simple - ) unmodified, unbranched or little branched; dendro- (dendrophysis) irregularly or strongly branched; dicho- (dichophysis) repeatedly dichotomously branched; acantho- (acanthophysis) having pin-like outgrowths near apex; synonymous or near synonymous are paraphysis, pseudoparaphysis, paraphysoid, dikaryoparaphysis and pseudophysis
incurved of cap margin, curved inwards toward stem, but less than inrolled
inequilateral of spores, means that a line drawn through the length of spore does not divide equal mirror images
inflexed bent inward, incurved
inrolled of cap margin, rolled inwards so that the edge of the margin is actually points toward gills
kingdom one of five groups of living organisms: Monera (including bacteria and blue-green algae), Protoctista (including protozoans, most algae and three phyla of fungi), Animalia (animals), Plantae (plants), and Eumycota (the rest of the fungi)
laciniate of margin or cap or annulus, cut more coarsely than fringed, slashed
lateral of a stem, attached to the side of the cap
lichen a dual organism in which a fungus (usually an ascomycete but occasionally a basidiomycete) maintains a green alga or cyanobacterium captive for mutual benefit
lignicolous living in, on, or out of wood
lubricous greasy or slippery or oily but not viscid (sticky) or slimy
macroscopic visible to the naked eye, without a microscope
margin the edge of the cap or gills
marginate having a distinct margin: when discussing gills the edge has a different color, often used to mean a darker or brighter color; when discussing the bulb on a stem indicates a flange (circular ridge) at the top of the bulb
micron one thousandth of a millimeter, or one millionth of a meter
microscopic discernible only with a microscope
moderately broad of gills, with height intermediate between narrow and broad
mucilaginous slimy
mushroom the fruiting body of a fungus, especially one that has gills (agaric) or a stem and pores ending in tubes (bolete)
mycelium (plural mycelia) network of fungal cells that may or may not amass together and form a mushroom
mycenoid resembling a mushroom of the genus Mycena: tall, slender mushrooms with long cartilaginous stems (no ring or volva), and comparatively small conic to bellshaped caps with attached but not decurrent gills
mycology the science or the study of fungi
mycophagist one who eats fungi
mycorrhiza a particular symbiotic relationship with the roots of a seed plant, see ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza; the rootlets of trees that are covered or permeated by the mycelium of fungi
narrow of gills, the opposite of broad, refers to the height of the gill, which may be narrow, moderately broad or broad
naucorioid applied to any mushroom with a fleshy type, attached gills which are not sinuate or decurrent, and lacking a ring or a volva
nodule small bump, lump, or knot
notched refers to gills that are uncinate or sinuate or emarginate, as if a wedge of gill had been removed near the stem: if the line of the bottom edge of the gill curves down sharply, gills are uncinate, if it curves gradually toward the stem reaching it more or less horizontally, gills are sinuate (emarginate)
obclavate club-shaped in the opposite direction to that expected; of cystidia, with base swollen and narrowing at middle and top
obconic like an ice-cream cone with point down
obligate invariably found in a particular situation, usually in reference to organisms that must live in a particular association with another
oblong of spores, elongated with approximately parallel sides; according to one set of criteria, ratio of length to width is 1.6-2: shorter would be elliptic and longer cylindric; however, spores in this range are often referred to as narrowly elliptic
obovate ovate with the larger end in the opposite direction to the usual
obovoid ovoid with the larger end in the opposite direction to the usual
obsolete (of annulus, scales etc.) very imperfectly developed, hardly perceptible; of terms, no longer in use
obtuse blunt, not pointed; greater than a right angle
obtusely conic rounded or blunt cone-shaped
obtusely umbonate broadly umbonate, not with sharp umbo
ochreate of volva, sheathing the stem at base like a stocking
order a classification grouping below class but above family, genus and species: suffix is -ales
organism individual living bacterium, protozoan, animal, plant, fungus etc.
oval like the outline of an egg
ovate similar to oval but some regard as more pointed at the narrower end
ovoid shaped like an egg, same as oval, but sometimes implying 3-dimensional shape
parabolic of cap, with the height greater than the width, the top rounded
parasitic feeding on another living organisms; living at the expense of other organisms to their detriment
partial veil inner veil of tissue which joins the stem to the cap edge at first in some species of mushrooms, and often breaks to leave a ring on stem and remnants hanging from the cap margin; partial veils are usually either membranous or cortinate
pellicle an upper surface layer on cap surface that can undergo gelatinization, making the cap viscid (sticky) to the touch; often it can be peeled away from the cap, may be thought of as covering cuticle; same as cuticle or as thinner and more definite
phylum (plural phyla) classification grouping below kingdom but above class
pileus cap of a mushroom
pitted with small depressions
pleurotoid resembling in general form the genus Pleurotus, may be applied to any gilled mushroom either without a stem or with a stem attached in a lateral or off-center manner
pliable capable of bending, easily flexible
pluteotoid resembling in general form the genus Pluteus, with free or finely adnexed gills, lacking a ring or volva
pocket rot a rot producing hollow pockets in a tree
polypores the shelf or bracket fungi which produce spores on the inside of vertically oriented tubes (ending in pores) that do not separate easily from cap and are often tough, generally in Order Poriales
pore a circular depression in place of the gill of many non-gilled species; a circular depression on the spores of many species: see germ pore
psilocin 4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a hallucinogenic substance found in some species of Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, and Pluteus, giving a bluing reaction in the tissue of a mushroom as it breaks down
psilocybin O-phosphoryl-4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, a hallucinogenic substance found in some species of Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, and Pluteus
radicating forming a root
reviving said of fruiting body which shrivels in dry weather or when dried and takes on its natural shape when wet
revolute (of cap margin), rolled back or up
rhizomorph cordlike strand of twisted hyphae present around base of stem, often dark colored
ridged of spores, with narrow raised straight or curved strips on the surface of the spore
ring annulus, collar of tissue on stem formed by ruptured of the veil that initially joins the stem to the cap edge
saccate of a volva, shaped like a sac, cup or sheath
saprophytic living on decaying organic matter
scale piece of tissue on surface that is not especially elongated, differentiated from surface by color or by projecting from it
sclerotium a knot or firm frequently rounded mass of hyphae, usually underground, sometimes giving rise to mycelium or a fruiting body
separable said of stem or gill easily removed from cap
sequestrate describes fruiting bodies that have evolved from those that forcibly discharge spores to a closed or even underground form in which spores are retained until it decays or is eaten by an animal, the word referring to spores which have been sequestered (hidden). Lactarius is thought to give rise to Arcangeliella (mostly above ground, but gills not exposed or vertically oriented and do not discharge spores forcibly) and Zelleromyces (underground, no true stem). Russula is thought to give rise to Macowanites (mostly above ground), Gymnomyces (underground, no stem), Elasmomyces (no sphaerocysts in hymenial tissue), and Martiella (no sphaerocysts in hymenial tissue, underground without stem). Cortinarius is thought to give rise to Thaxterogaster (above ground) and Hymenogaster (underground, no stem). Agaricus is thought to give rise to Endoptychum and Longula. Chroogomphus is thought to give rise to Brauniellula (often buried or half buried). Pholiota is thought to be related to Nivatogastrium (grows on wood). Other postulated sequestrates are given in brackets: Amanita (Torrendia), Bolbitiaceae (Gastrocybe), Boletus (Gastroboletus), Coprinus (Podaxis), Entoloma (Richonia), Gomphidius (Gomphogaster), Lepiotaceae (Notholepiota), Paxillaceae (Austrogaster, Gymnopaxillus), Strobilomycetaceae (Gautieria), Suillus (Rhizopogon, Alpova, Truncocolumella, Gastrosuillus).
shaggy rough as with long hair or wool
sinuate of gill attachment, refers to gills with a lower edge that curves up close to the stem then curves back to reach the stem more or less horizontally; of cap margin means wavy or undulating
slimy having a thick layer of slime, more than viscid or glutinous
skirtlike of a ring (annulus), hanging down like a skirt
smooth of a surface, without projections, often equivalent to bald or glabrous; but may be described as bumpy and bald, or finely powdery and smooth; of cap margin may mean not wavy or lobed, or may mean not grooved; of spores, not spiny rough, or ridged
solid not hollow; feeling hard
solitary not growing in the immediate neighborhood of other individuals
sphagnum a genus of moss that grows in bogs
spathulate shaped like a spatula or spoon, oblong with a narrowing base
species classification grouping below family and genus, often used for organisms capable of interbreeding (though less common "hybrids" can occur between species), among anamorphic fungi that are not known to breed sexually, it refers to a certain level of similarity in form or function; named by genus name in upper case and species name in lower case, e.g. Russula emetica
spore reproductive cell or "seed" of a fungus, produced on specialized cells, which in gilled mushrooms are on the gills
spore print a visible deposit of spores obtained by allowing a gilled mushroom to drop spores onto white paper for a few hours or overnight
spore wall in the most complex spore wall there are five layers from outer to inner: perisporium, non-pigmented and usually enveloping spore like a bag which may disappear; exosporium, usually non-pigmented and can often be distinguished chemically from other layers, episporium, a continuation of outer wall of basidium, the thickest layer and the one providing structural support, mesosporium, a barely distinguishable delicate structure, and endosporium, which can vary from very thick (in which case it can then be divided into inner and outer part) or seemingly absent, or truly absent; the presence or absence of layers varies with species
sporocarp a structure in which or on which spores are produced, often used for fruiting body, consisting of cap, gills, and stem
stalk same as stipe or stem
stem the column supporting the cap in most mushroom, more correctly called the stipe
sterile not producing spores
stipe the correct name for the "stem" of a mushroom
subclose a term used occasionally of gill spacing, intermediate between close and crowded, might also be used to mean more or less close
subcrowded a term used occasionally of gill spacing, intermediate between close and crowded, might also be used to mean more or less crowded
subdistant of gill spacing, intermediate between close and distant, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant
subfusiform of spores, elongated, tapered at one end and rounded at the other
subgills the short gills that do not span the entire distance from margin to stem
subisodiametric of spore sizes, the average length divided by the average width has a value from 1.16-1.27: with isodiametric spores this value is 1.0-1.15, and with heterodiametric spores it is greater than 1.27
substrate the material that a fungus is growing on
taxon (plural taxa) a named form, variety, species etc.
terrestrial appearing to grow from the ground, or on the ground, as opposed to growing on wood
toadstool a mushroom, especially a poisonous one
toothed serrate on the edges; toothlike on the edges; of gills, with toothlike edges or decurrent by a short tooth
translucent transmitting light diffusely, semitransparent
tubular of stem, having the flesh empty of fibrils, same as fistulose or hollow; of hymenophore, composed of tubes, the opening of which is called a pore
turbinate top-shaped; of cystidia, swollen at top, tapered from middle downward, becoming abrupt at base
umbilicate refers to a cap with a narrow, moderate to deep depression in center which may or may not have a small umbo in the bottom
umbo a raised knob or mound at the center of the cap
umbo a raised knob or mound at the center of the cap
umbonate having a raised knob or mound at the center of the cap
uncinate refers to gills with a lower edge that curves up as it comes close to the stem, then abruptly curved down to leave a "tooth" on stem, not proceeding further down stem than the imaginary line running straight along the lower gill edge to the stem, but sometimes used as equivalent to "decurrent with tooth"
undulate wavy
universal veil the enveloping veil initially covering the whole mushroom including the top of the cap: when it breaks, it may leave fragments on the cap or the stem, or a volva at the base of the stem
uplifted the margin of the cap turning upward
urceolate having the shape of a pitcher, with a large body and small mouth
urticoid with a swollen base and a long gradually narrowed apex
utriform of cystidia, with a slight constriction below a large round head, like a bladder, therefore bladder-shaped
vaginatoid applied to any mushroom with free or finely adnexed gills, a volva, and lacking an annulus
variety (abbreviated var.) a consistent appearing variation of a species, with more variation than a form, sufficiently hereditary as to characterize homogeneous populations
veil referring either to the partial veil which joins the stem to the cap edge at first, and often breaks to leave a ring on stem and remnants hanging from the cap margin, or the universal veil which initially covers the whole fruiting body including the top of the cap, always breaking and sometimes leaving fragments on the cap or the stem, or a volva at the base of the stem
viscid sticky but not slimy or lubricous: the mushroom usually feels somewhat slimy or slippery when wet but when dry may need to be wetted slightly to feel sticky; sometimes used to include slimy
volva the remains o f the universal veil found at the base of the stem, usually in the form of a sac, collar or concentric rings
waxy appearing as if coated with wax
well-spaced referring to gills, corresponds to distant
white rot a rot that removes both lignin and cellulose
zonate with circular bands of differing colors or ornamentation

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